ATM OCN (Meteorology) 100
ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE:A FUNDAMENTAL WEATHER ELEMENT
Lecture #3 Scheduled for:
16 JUN 2004 (W)
Recommended Readings from Moran (2002):
pages 69-73; 89-90 (Review 29-30).
Today's Lecture Objectives:
- To distinguish between temperature and heat.
- To list and describe the four commonly used thermometers.
- To discuss the factors that are necessary to obtain an accurate air temperature reading.
- To compare and contrast the Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin temperature scales and perform conversions between each scale, given a selected temperature reading.
- To list typical values and the observed extreme ranges of surface air temperature.
- To compute the daily mean, daily range, monthly mean, annual mean and annual range of temperature at a locale from a provided data set.
- To calculate heating and cooling degree-day units from appropriate data and relate these calculations to expected fuel consumption.
- To recognize the influence of the major controls of temperature upon the world temperature distribution.
- To label the salient features of a typical vertical temperature profile of the earth's atmosphere ranging from the earth's surface to a height of several hundred kilometers, using the traditional temperature based nomenclature.
- To describe the general characteristics of the layers in the earth's atmosphere based upon the vertical variation in air temperature.
- To identify the causes responsible for this temperature profile.
- Definitions Temperature, Heat, Internal Energy
- Human Significance of Temperature
- The Science of Thermometry
- Types of Thermometers
- Liquid-in-glass thermometers
- Maximum recording thermometers
- Minimum recording thermometers
- Deformation thermometers
- Electrical thermometers
- Radiation thermometers (radiometers)
- Measurement Requirements
- Temperature Scales
- Historical Background
- The Three Temperature Scales: Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin
- Temperature Scale Conversions
C. THE CLIMATOLOGY OF NEAR-SURFACE AIR TEMPERATURE
- Temporal Variation in Air Temperature
- Diurnal cycle
- Annual cycle
- Spatial Variation in Observed Atmospheric Temperature
- Average Daily Temperatures and Degree-Day Units
D. VARIATION OF OBSERVED AIR TEMPERATURE WITH HEIGHT
- Temperature lapse rates
- Layer nomenclature
- isothermal, inversion, lapse
- The Standard Reference Atmosphere
- The Temperature Spheres
- The boundaries or "pauses"
- Reasons for the observed vertical temperature structure
- Implications of the vertical temperature structure
Links to Other References:
17 June 2004 (1130 UTC)
Produced by Edward J. Hopkins, Ph.D.
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI 53706